Bloom's Taxonomy
Archdiocese of Milwaukee - Office for Schools

Bloom's Taxonomy

"Technology can be a means to access content on any topic, a tool for thinking and creating, a connection to peers and experts, and a window into other cultures"

- Partnership for 21st Century Learning


This is an introduction to Bloom's Digital Taxonomy


This is an update to Bloom's Revised Taxonomy which attempts to account for the new behaviours and actions emerging as technology advances and becomes more ubiquitous. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy describes many traditional classroom practices, behaviours and actions, but does not account for the new processes and actions associated with Web 2.0 technologies, infowhelm (the exponential growth in information), increasing ubiquitous personal technologies or cloud computing.
Bloom's Digital Taxonomy isn't about the tools or technologies rather it is about using these to facilitate learning. Outcomes on rubrics are measured by competence of use and most importantly the quality of the process or product. For example. Bookmarking a resource is of no value if the resource is inappropriate, invalid, out of date or inaccurate.
Bloom's Digital Taxonomy lends itself to problem and project based learning where the student must work through the entire process of development and evaluation. The 21st Century Fluency Projects 6D model for Solution Fluency is an excellent example of how to work through the project or problem based learning frame work.

The Cognitive Domain - Bloom's Taxonomy

This categorized and ordered thinking skills and objectives. His taxonomy follows the thinking process. You can not understand a concept if you do not first remember it, similarly you can not apply knowledge and concepts if you do not understand them. It is a continuum from Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Bloom describe each category as a gerund. They are arranged below in increasing order, from lower order to higher order.

Original Bloom's Graphics

Below are two of the more common graphics used to represent the original taxonomy or thinking process according to Benjamin Bloom. Please note that implied within the graphics is the amount of classroom time 'recommended' for each stage of thinking. Therefore, in the 1950's more (or most) classroom time was allotted to the 'lower-order' thinking stages of 'knowledge,' 'comprehension.' and 'application.' Today, considering the ability of our students to access the internet the information that we used to have students memorize

Revised Bloom's by Kathy Schrock

Bloomin' Apps - Kathy Schrock's Guide to Everything

This image was shared with permission from ( under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories

Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with it
Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)

  • Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding
  • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
  • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing
  • Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
  • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring
  • Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

The elements cover many classroom activities and objectives but they do not address the new objectives presented by the emergence and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in to the classroom and the lives of our students.
This revision is fundamentally based on the revised taxonomy proposed by Anderson et al, but is more inclusive of digital technologies and digital cognitive objectives.

Bloom's as a learning process.

Bloom's Taxonomy in its various forms represents the process of learning. It has been simplified in some case like the Three Story Intellect (Oliver Wendell Holmes and Art Costa), but it still essentially represents how we learn.

Before we can understand a concept we have to remember it
Before we can apply the concept we must understand it
Before we analyse it we must be able to apply it
Before we can evaluate its impact we must have analysed it
Before we can create we must have remembered, understood, applied, analysed, and evaluated.

Some people may argue about that you do not require some of the stages for each and every task, action or process; some too may argue about the necessity to reach the creation level for all activities. This is the choice of the individual.

Is it important where you start? Must I start with remembering?

I don't think it is. The learning can start at any point, but inherent in that learning is going to be the prior elements and stages.


Information on this page was shared with permission from: under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Licence. Thank you Andrew Churches. p

MORE - Take a look at this powerpoint that does a great job of explaining how the 're-vised' Bloom's Taxonomy has been updated to apply 21st Century Learning (Thanks to Denise Tarlinton for the PowerPoint):


More PowerPoint presentations from St Robert

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Janelle Luther: (414) 758-2256
Maureen Wurster: (414) 758-2254



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